The 100 civics (history and government) questions and answers for the naturalization test are listed below. The civics test is an oral test and the USCIS Officer will ask the applicant up to 10 of the 100 civics questions. An applicant must answer 6 out of 10 questions correctly to pass the civics portion of the naturalization test.

On the naturalization test, some answers may change because of elections or appointments. As you study for the test, make sure that you know the most current answers to these questions. Answer these questions with the name of the official who is serving at the time of your eligibility interview with USCIS. The USCIS Officer will not accept an incorrect answer.

Although USCIS is aware that there may be additional correct answers to the 100 civics questions, applicants are encouraged to respond to the civics questions using the answers provided below.


1. What is the supreme law of the land?
the Constitution

2. What does the Constitution do?
sets up the government
defines the government
protects basic rights of Americans

3. The idea of self-government is in the first three words of the Constitution. What are these words?
We the People

4. What is an amendment?
a change (to the Constitution)
an addition (to the Constitution)

5. What do we call the first ten amendments to the Constitution?
the Bill of Rights

6. What is one right or freedom from the First Amendment?*
petition the government

7. How many amendments does the Constitution have?
twenty-seven (27)

8. What did the Declaration of Independence do?
announced our independence (from Great Britain)
declared our independence (from Great Britain)
said that the United States is free (from Great Britain)

9. What are two rights in the Declaration of Independence?
pursuit of happiness

10. What is freedom of religion?
You can practice any religion, or not practice a religion.

11. What is the economic system in the United States?*
capitalist economy
market economy

12. What is the “rule of law”?
Everyone must follow the law.
Leaders must obey the law.
Government must obey the law.
▪ No one is above the law.

13. Name one branch or part of the government.*
the courts

14. What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful?
checks and balances
separation of powers

15. Who is in charge of the executive branch?
the President

16. Who makes federal laws?
Senate and House (of Representatives)
(U.S. or national) legislature

17. What are the two parts of the U.S. Congress?*
the Senate and House (of Representatives)

18. How many U.S. Senators are there?
one hundred (100)

19. We elect a U.S. Senator for how many years?
six (6)

20. Who is one of your state’s U.S. Senators now?*
Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents and residents of U.S. territories should answer that D.C. (or the territory where the applicant lives) has no U.S. Senators.]

21. The House of Representatives has how many voting members?
four hundred thirty-five (435)

22. We elect a U.S. Representative for how many years?
two (2)

23. Name your U.S. Representative.
Answers will vary. [Residents of territories with nonvoting Delegates or Resident Commissioners may provide the name of that Delegate or Commissioner. Also acceptable is any statement that the territory has no (voting) Representatives in Congress.]

24. Who does a U.S. Senator represent?
all people of the state

25. Why do some states have more Representatives than other states?
(because of) the state’s population
(because) they have more people
(because) some states have more people

26. We elect a President for how many years?
four (4)

27. In what month do we vote for President?*

28. What is the name of the President of the United States now?*
Visit for the name of the President of the United States.

29. What is the name of the Vice President of the United States now?
Visit for the name of the Vice President of the United States.

30. If the President can no longer serve, who becomes President?
the Vice President

31. If both the President and the Vice President can no longer serve, who becomes President?
the Speaker of the House

32. Who is the Commander in Chief of the military?
the President

33. Who signs bills to become laws?
the President

34. Who vetoes bills?
the President

35. What does the President’s Cabinet do?
advises the President

36. What are two Cabinet-level positions?
Secretary of Agriculture
Secretary of Commerce
Secretary of Defense
Secretary of Education
Secretary of Energy
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Secretary of Homeland Security
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Secretary of the Interior
Secretary of Labor
Secretary of State
Secretary of Transportation
Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Attorney General
Vice President

37. What does the judicial branch do?
reviews laws
explains laws
resolves disputes (disagreements)
decides if a law goes against the Constitution

38. What is the highest court in the United States?
the Supreme Court

39. How many justices are on the Supreme Court?
Visit for the number of justices on the Supreme Court.

40. Who is the Chief Justice of the United States now?
Visit for the name of the Chief Justice of the United States.

41. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the federal government. What is one power of the federal government?
to print money
to declare war
to create an army
to make treaties

42. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the states. What is one power of the states?
provide schooling and education
provide protection (police)
provide safety (fire departments)
give a driver’s license
approve zoning and land use

43. Who is the Governor of your state now?
Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents should answer that D.C. does not have a Governor.]

44. What is the capital of your state?*
Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents should answer that D.C. is not a state and does not have a capital. Residents of U.S. territories should name the capital of the territory.]

45. What are the two major political parties in the United States?*
Democratic and Republican

46. What is the political party of the President now?
Visit for the political party of the President.

47. What is the name of the Speaker of the House of Representatives now?
Visit for the name of the Speaker of the House of Representatives.

48. There are four amendments to the Constitution about who can vote. Describe one of them.
Citizens eighteen (18) and older (can vote).
You don’t have to pay (a poll tax) to vote.
Any citizen can vote. (Women and men can vote.)
A male citizen of any race (can vote).

49. What is one responsibility that is only for United States citizens?*
serve on a jury
vote in a federal election

50. Name one right only for United States citizens.
vote in a federal election
run for federal office

51. What are two rights of everyone living in the United States?
freedom of expression
freedom of speech
freedom of assembly
freedom to petition the government
freedom of religion
the right to bear arms

52. What do we show loyalty to when we say the Pledge of Allegiance?
the United States
the flag

53. What is one promise you make when you become a United States citizen?
give up loyalty to other countries
defend the Constitution and laws of the United States
obey the laws of the United States
serve in the U.S. military (if needed)
serve (do important work for) the nation (if needed)
be loyal to the United States

54. How old do citizens have to be to vote for President?*
eighteen (18) and older

55. What are two ways that Americans can participate in their democracy?
join a political party
help with a campaign
join a civic group
join a community group
give an elected official your opinion on an issue
call Senators and Representatives
publicly support or oppose an issue or policy
run for office
write to a newspaper

56. When is the last day you can send in federal income tax forms?*
April 15

57. When must all men register for the Selective Service?
at age eighteen (18)
between eighteen (18) and twenty-six (26)


58. What is one reason colonists came to America?
political liberty
religious freedom
economic opportunity
▪ practice their religion
escape persecution

59. Who lived in America before the Europeans arrived?
American Indians
Native Americans

60. What group of people was taken to America and sold as slaves?
people from Africa

61. Why did the colonists fight the British?
because of high taxes (taxation without representation)
because the British army stayed in their houses (boarding, quartering)
because they didn’t have self-government

62. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
(Thomas) Jefferson

63. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted?
July 4, 1776

64. There were 13 original states. Name three.
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey
North Carolina
South Carolina

65. What happened at the Constitutional Convention?
The Constitution was written.
The Founding Fathers wrote the Constitution.

66. When was the Constitution written?

67. The Federalist Papers supported the passage of the U.S. Constitution. Name one of the writers.
(James) Madison
(Alexander) Hamilton
(John) Jay

68. What is one thing Benjamin Franklin is famous for?
U.S. diplomat
oldest member of the Constitutional Convention
first Postmaster General of the United States
writer of “Poor Richard’s Almanac”
started the first free libraries

69. Who is the “Father of Our Country”?
(George) Washington

70. Who was the first President?*
(George) Washington

71. What territory did the United States buy from France in 1803?
the Louisiana Territory

72. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1800s.
War of 1812
Mexican American War
Civil War
Spanish-American War

73. Name the U.S. war between the North and the South.
the Civil War
the War between the States

74. Name one problem that led to the Civil War.
economic reasons
states’ rights

75. What was one important thing that Abraham Lincoln did?*
freed the slaves (Emancipation Proclamation)
saved (or preserved) the Union
led the United States during the Civil War

76. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
freed the slaves
freed slaves in the Confederacy
freed slaves in the Confederate states
freed slaves in most Southern states

77. What did Susan B. Anthony do?
fought for women’s rights
fought for civil rights

78. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1900s.*
World War I
World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
(Persian) Gulf War

79. Who was President during World War I?
(Woodrow) Wilson

80. Who was President during the Great Depression and World War II?
(Franklin) Roosevelt

81. Who did the United States fight in World War II?
Japan, Germany, and Italy

82. Before he was President, Eisenhower was a general. What war was he in?
World War II

83. During the Cold War, what was the main concern of the United States?

84. What movement tried to end racial discrimination?
civil rights (movement)

85. What did Martin Luther King, Jr. do?*
fought for civil rights
worked for equality for all Americans

86. What major event happened on September 11, 2001, in the United States?
Terrorists attacked the United States.

87. Name one American Indian tribe in the United States.
[USCIS Officers will be supplied with a list of federally recognized American Indian tribes.]


88. Name one of the two longest rivers in the United States.
Missouri (River)
Mississippi (River)

89. What ocean is on the West Coast of the United States?
Pacific (Ocean)

90. What ocean is on the East Coast of the United States?
Atlantic (Ocean)

91. Name one U.S. territory.
Puerto Rico
U.S. Virgin Islands
American Samoa
Northern Mariana Islands

92. Name one state that borders Canada.
New Hampshire
New York
North Dakota

93. Name one state that borders Mexico.
New Mexico

94. What is the capital of the United States?*
Washington, D.C.

95. Where is the Statue of Liberty?*
New York (Harbor)
Liberty Island
[Also acceptable are New Jersey, near New York City, and on the Hudson (River).]

96. Why does the flag have 13 stripes?
because there were 13 original colonies
because the stripes represent the original colonies

97. Why does the flag have 50 stars?*
because there is one star for each state
because each star represents a state
because there are 50 states

98. What is the name of the national anthem?
The Star-Spangled Banner

99. When do we celebrate Independence Day?*
July 4

100. Name two national U.S. holidays.
New Year’s Day
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
Presidents’ Day
Memorial Day
Independence Day
Labor Day
Columbus Day
Veterans Day

* If you are 65 years old or older and have been a legal permanent resident of the United States for 20 or more years, you may study just the questions that have been marked with an asterisk.